Who coined the class and gender deals theory and what approach does it take?
Carlen (1988) - feminist.
Why can socialisation be more difficult for boys than for girls? What does A. Cohen (1955) say in terms of this?
Socialisation can be more difficult for boys as men have less of a socialising role than women. A Cohen says that this lack of a male role model leads to boys turning to male street gangs as a source of masculine identity, where they can prove their masculinity through delinquent acts.
Describe Carlen's study of women and crime.
Carlen carried out unstructured tape-recorded interviews of 39 15-46 year old working class women who had been convicted of a range of crimes. 20 were in prison or in youth custody at the time of interviews. (Carlen recognises there are middle class female offenders but argues that the most serious crimes are committed by the working class).
Why are daughters less likely to commit crime?
Daughters are less likely to commit crime because they are less likely to be able to come and go as they please - they create a 'bedroom culture' where their friends come round and they are required to do more housework than boys. Thus, they are more restricted to the home.
What does Parsons say in terms of gender roles and female crime?
Parsons traces gender differences in crime to gender roles in the conventional nuclear family. These give girls access to an adult role model but boys reject feminine models of behaviour, distancing themselves by engaging in 'compensatory compulsory masculinity' through acts of delinquency.
Who coined the patriarchal control theory and what approach does it take? (1985)
Heidensohn - feminist approach.
Why does the control at work point made by Heidensohn lack historical validity?
Because women are now breaking through the 'glass ceiling' and thus have more opportunity to commit white collar crime.